Welcome! This page provides perspectives, general practices and links to resources for helping students to develop expertise (e.g., skills, attitudes & knowledge) for learning ideas. Students might, for instance, develop skills for note-taking and for cooperative strategies, etc.). If you have comments, questions, suggestions, resource ideas, etc. about anything here, please write to me about them. Thanks.
although learners may have various useful
conceptions, they also may lack knowledge, skills,
attitudes, etc. that
would serve them well in their life choices. And, based on
the apparent problem
induction, learners may not (or are likely to not)
principles, theories, etc. from specific experiences.
learners may need direct
instructional approaches in order to gain access to
useful ideas. This does not,
however, imply that learners should (or can) be passive
instructional methods and information. Indeed, they are
likely to be active
participants in learning processes.
||Specifically, students need to learn how to learn. In the systematic educational situations ('formal' and 'informal'), that implies: i) developing metacognitive skills in association with directed instruction and ii) eventually, becoming an independent learning. Metacognition means to think about your own thinking (and also involves actions to improve thinking & learning). Those who develop metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful learners. It serves them well during directed instruction and allows them to become independent life-long learners. This is particularly important in societies like ours, which have seemingly endless products and services that, in essence, minimize the need for independent thinking and learning.|
Based on the pedagogy outlined at Skills Pedagogy, some specific suggestions for helping students to develop skills that they could use for learning ideas are provided through the links at right. Note that no resources are provided for the 'Students Apply Skills' phase, since they would do that in the 'Learning Ideas' phase of my constructivism-informed pedagogical framework.
have been learning from the time of their
birth (and some say before
utero), they likely
have developed some conceptions about how they
learn and ways in which
they might improve their learning. Based on constructivist
learning principles, many educators
recommend that learners begin
teaching & learning sessions by expressing
their pre-instructional perspectives and
practices. This can make
pre-instructional conceptions and, if
necessary, revise them.
In the Learning phase of my three-phase pedagogical framework, the main aim is to provide students with ideas, perspectives, skills, etc. that they might not otherwise discover. It is intended to ensure they have access to a broad repertoire of ideas, perspectives, etc. A general principle of this phase of my learning cycle is that instruction should be teacher-directed & closed-ended (TD/CE). Otherwise, students are unlikely to 'discover' important ideas, skills, etc. Having said that, teacher-directed instruction sometimes is somewhat ineffective, for various reasons, including that an essential aspect of successful student learning is student participation. Accordingly, in most cases, I have broken down the Learning phase of my teaching & learning model into two sub-stages; that is, i) TD/CE Modelling and ii) Teacher-guided Student Practice. In other words, I recommend that — after the Expressing stage (above) — teachers first 'teach' (e.g., through demonstrations, films, drawings, etc.) particular skills and, then, guide students through some practice activities regarding the same skills. To teach people to throw a ball, for example, we might first demonstrate this but, then, let them try it on their own (with guidance). In reality, teachers may need to repeat cycles of demonstrating a skill and encouraging student practice. Some skills to teach in this manner, along with some relevant resources, are suggested at right. In addition, some suggestions for integrating NoST and STSE teaching & learning into these skills lessons are provided.
appreciate the value of metacognition and, then,
teach them ways in
which they may develop greater metacognitive
abilities. Some sites that
have resources for doing this are located
constructivism-informed teaching & learning. Not everyone would use such an approach or use one all of the time. Whatever teachers use, however, they should be explicit about it and, then, encourage students to use metacognitive strategies to map and plan their progress.